Toby Thacker is Senior Lecturer in Modern European History at Cardiff University. His research concentrates on the cultural, political and military history of 20th century Europe. Thacker has focused particularly on the role and place of music in Germany after 1945; on music in the early East Germany; and on the relationship between different forms of music and concepts of citizenship in modern Germany. He has also written about the end of World War II in Europe and most recently has written a full length biography of Joseph Goebbels. Thacker is now devoting attention to British culture, the arts and the construction of memory during and after World War I.