Consequences of the War on Terror and the Iraq War

Singh and Carle examine GWOT effects: US victories marred by unclear strategy, nation-building dilemmas.

US zeal for de-Ba’athification fueled chaos, sectarian violence by excluding civil servants and party members.

Shia revenge on Sunnis after Hussein's fall fueled Shia dominance, Sunni resentment, and rise of ISIS.

Iraqis rejected Saddam, blamed US for sectarian violence, anarchy, sparking inevitable anti-US insurgency.

Insurgencies defy suppression. UK struggled in N. Ireland. US unsuited for empire. DC faced challenge.

Bush called it terror war, not insurgency. US-created vacuum let al-Qaeda thrive, targeting troops for jihad.

Zarqawi's al-Qaeda in Iraq morphed into Islamic State, conducted brutal attacks on Iraqis, expanded into Syria.

US ill-equipped for Middle East's unraveling. Iraqi insurgency drained US resolve to continue regional efforts.