Taipei (, literally means “North of Taiwan”), officially known as Taipei City (), is the capital city and a special municipality of Taiwan. Situated at the northern tip of Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei. It is about southwest of northern port city Keelung. The city locates on the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city’s western border. The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,693,672 in 2009, forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 6,900,273, the 40th most-populous urban area in the world. The term “Taipei” can be either referred to the whole metropolitan area or city proper itself. In political terms, “Taipei” can occasionally be used as a synecdoche regarding the sovereignty of Taiwan. Due to the ongoing controversial political status of Taiwan, a designated name Chinese Taipei is in common use when Taiwanese governmental representatives or national teams participate in some international organizations (which may required an UN statehood) in order to avoid extensive political effects by using other names. Before the city was founded by Chinese immigrants in the early 18th century, the region of Taipei Basin was mainly inhabited by the indigenous people known as the Ketagalan. In the 19th century, the city rapidly grew in importance due to significant growth of international trades. Taipei Prefecture was created in 1875 by the Qing Dynasty of China and was formally made provincial capital of Taiwan in 1894. Following the annexation of Taiwan by Japan in 1895, Japan retained Taipei as capital of the island and embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period. The Republic of China took over the island in 1945 following Japan’s surrender. After the Chinese Civil War, the ruling party Kuomintang (KMT) lost its control of whole mainland China and relocated the ROC government to Taiwan, proclaimed Taipei as the provisional capital of the Republic of China in December 1949. In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy. Taipei is the political, economic, and cultural center of Taiwan. Considered to be a global city, Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area. Railways, high-speed rail, highways, airports, and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Mengjia Longshan Temple, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Night markets, and Ximending. Its natural features such as Maokong, Yangmingshan, and hot springs are also well known to international visitors.