Jean-Marie Le Pen (; born 20 June 1928) is a French politician who led the National Front party from its foundation in 1972 until 2011. His longevity in politics and his five attempts to become president of France have made him a major figure in French political life. His progression in the late 1980s is known as the “Lepénisation des esprits” or lepénisation of spirits due to its noticeable effect on mainstream political opinion. Lepenism in France refers to his eurosceptic, nationalist and conservative ideas. His controversial speeches and his integration into public life have made him a figure that polarizes opinion, considered as the “Devil of the Republic” among his opponents or as the last samurai in politics among his supporters. His progress to the second round in the 21 April 2002 presidential election left its mark on French public life, and the “21st of April” is now a frequently used expression in France. Since the “de-demonization of the Front national” by Marine Le Pen, his daughter and successor, he is more absent in public life but still active at a lower level. A June 2014 poll showed that 91% of the French have a bad opinion of him. Le Pen focuses on issues related to immigration to France, the European Union, traditional culture and values, law and order and France’s high rate of unemployment. He advocates immigration restrictions, the death penalty, raising incentives for homemakers, and euroscepticism. He strongly opposes same-sex marriage, euthanasia, and abortion.