Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D. , PhD, D. Phil. , or DPhil in English-speaking countries and originally as Dr. Philos. (for the Latin philosophiae doctor or doctor philosophiae), is in many countries a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities. The academic level known as a Doctorate of philosophy varies considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates.

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